Bartolome de Torres Naharro, who died about , is impor- tant for his originality and for his attempt to classify dramatic techniques. A Dialogo del Nascimiento , written between and , was his only religious play. A dialogue between two shepherds, it contains no saints. He wrote for courtly rather than popular taste; but his poetry contained folk elements as well as lyric grace. The Auto da Sibilla Cassandra , also in Portuguese, offers the pro- phetic Sibyl, so popular in the Middle Ages, along with a group of Old Testament prophets— who, incidentally, are saints.
A partly allegorized version of the parable of the good Samaritan, it has a number of abstract personnages along vith Sts. Adam, Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, and Augustine. In the last-named work.
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Saint David sings portions of several Psalms and closes with the Te Deum. The two Nativity plays, published in , are notewsrthy in the transition from the representation of idealized Biblical or holy persons to the portrayal of characters with human sentiments and reactions.
Unlike many other writers of that epoch, Fernandez was careful in this play not to have the Saviour on the stage. Diego Sanchez de Badajoz? While some of them, such as the Farsa Teologal , the Farsa racional del libre albedrfo, and the Parsa de la Iglesia , posed moral or dogmatic pro- blems, others were based on sacred history or legends of the saints.
Canete, pp. The Parsa de Moysen contains an anachronism in that St, Peter interprets the action. Later, in the autos sacramentales , anachronisms mixed with allegory came to be easily accepted. Barbara was held in special reverence at Badajoz. Acting as prosecutor, the Devil finally angers a shepherd to the extent that the shepherd drives him away, and Christ and an angel then crown the young woman. The Parsa del rey David seeks to estab- lish the symbolical connection between David and Christ.
The Parsa de San Pedro sings the praises of a trade-guild; the portions refer- ring to the Bucharist are insignificant. The Parsa de Santa Susana is noted for vivid portrayal of character and for successful sus- taining of interest through a series of dramatic situations. Daniel no doubt had a role in the first, 3t, Michael in the second. Except for a mere mention of Christmas in the Parsa del Sordo , which has been attributed to him, his plays are secular.
Juan de Timoneda? John, encouraged by an angel, answers a number of theological questions. The Tragedia Josefina of Micael de Carvajal has been called 2 the best religious play of the sixteenth century. Documents have been found which indicate that he was married in to Teresa Nunez de Almaraz, and that she later took legal steps to retard his squandering of their fortune. The work evidently began with five acts 8md 4, lines. Too unwieldyo-OirvaJal remarked that it took six hours to perform— it was cut and rearranged.
The language of a Dr. Lopez de Montoya, who read or perhaps even saw the play, is cited by Glllet as evidence that the Parsa llamada Josefina and the Comedia llamada Josefina are the same; but 1 2 Crawford, p.
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The subject itself was not new; HI suefio y venta de J ose had been part of the Corpus Christi festivities at Gerona since early in the fourteenth century. For an explanation of the faraute , which precedes all but the first act, Gillet leans on Alonso de Carvalho, who, in his Cisne de Apolo , indicates that in troy to , faraute , and loa are about the same. But in a certain theatrical deftness, in the realism of the bargaining scene and the convincing shepherd profanity, in the flashes of Jewish pride of race, and in the con- trast between the characters of Joseph and Zenobia, Carvajal was superior.
Bspecially is he remembered for the creation of Zenobia, perhaps the first woman of flesh and blood since the Celestina.
She is driven by a force she cannot resist. In her fierce and somewhat coarse vitality there is a definite suggestion of pain; lust is humanized and omobled by suffering, suggesting the classical Phaedra. On this, especially, do we rest Carvajal' s claim to an important place in the history of the drama; passion had already spoken in the Celestina, the passion of young love, still almost inarticulate; but nowhere yet in modem Burope haul it risen to such fulness of power and to such nearly tragic dignity.
Some of the Old Testament saints— David, Elijah, and Jonah, for example—had their moments of human failure; but no such lapse is recorded for Joseph.
For a comparison of the Carvajal and Calderon plays, see pp. The Cortes, over which Death presides, are opened with due ceremony, and peals of trumpets introduce, in long but varied succession, a bishop and a shepherd, a knight and a rich man, a pauper, a nun, a married man, a widow, a judge, a lawyer and various others, all to argue their cases, some of them asking for longer life, one or two for death. The Vtorld, the Flesh and the Devil dis- cuss their claims, which are referred for an opinion to the assessors, S.
Augustin, S. Jeronimo or S. Gillet thinks Hurtado had little or nothing to do with the play. Nearly twice as long as the Tragedia Josefina , it was perhaps never performed, Canete attributes the Auto de la prevaricacion de nuestro padre Adan to Carvajal.
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Gillet concedes that the prologue and two choruses are like those of Carvajal; but the vocabulary, syntax, and style show no special similarity to the Josefina or the Cortes. Bartolome Palau? Palau, an Aragonese, chose to combine the experiences of Orosia as told in the missals and breviaries with the story of La Cava, Count Julian, and Roderic as found in the Cronica General.
Crawford, p. This Auto is no. Another work by Palau about a saint is unfortunately not extant: La historia de Santa Librada y sua ocho hermanas. This play was probably written for performance in , when the saint's relics were solenmly transferred to Burbaguena. Still to be mentioned for their possible contribution to Irhe development of the comedia de santos are a number of works by anony- mous and leas important writers of the sixteenth century. Ninety-six works, all anonymous except for the popular Autp de Cain y Abel of Jaime Perrui, are contained in the collection Ibid.
IX Madrid, , Abel the patriarch, accord is invoked in the litany for the dying. Abel the patriarch, according to The Book of Saints, p. Of these, only the Entremes de las esteras treats a secular theme. These 2 works were written between and , approximately. Auto, it will be remembered, was at this time apparently applicable to any type of one-act religious play. Wardropper indicates that many works, at least up to the time of Lope, were without the direct progress to the Bucharist which characterized the autos sacramentales in their highest development.
Lacalle has divided the collection into three groups: 1. Asuntos bi!
Autos del Antiguo Testamento. Autos de Navidad. Autos de Pasion y Resurreccion, 2. Autos de santos. Parsas sacramentales. Because of this problem, because the collection is not always accessible, and because the writer wishes to show the frequency with which saints appear in these works, the entire list of ninety-six plays may be found in Appendix B. Barcelona: Bosch, , pp. Audiences were evidently accustomed to seeing Divinity portrayed on the stage; they were perfectly willing to have God the Father portrayed by a man— so long as he wore gloves. Still other titles are to be found in an interesting study by Sanchez-Arjona.
Though an effort has been made to eliminate du- plications, it is possible that a few of these titles may, through abbreviated recording by the keeper of the anales , represent works already mentioned but with a somewhat different title. Tlie dates indicate the year of performance in Seville, , Auto de Adan y Bva.
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